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Zile de nastere - Birthdays

A Scottish paleobotanist whose first marriage was annulled—and allegedly never consummated—Stopes went on to publish a controversial yet highly influential sex manual, Married Love, in 1918. Thereafter, she became a pioneer in the field of family planning, opening the first birth-control clinic in the British Empire in 1921. Stopes helped break down taboos and improve women's reproductive health, but her support of what field of reproductive science has somewhat marred her reputation? Discuss
Jewish political philosopher Hannah Arendt fled Germany for France and then the US following Hitler's rise to power in 1933. Her reputation as a scholar and writer was firmly established with the publication of The Origins of Totalitarianism, which linked Nazism and Communism to 19th-century imperialism and anti-Semitism. Her next major publication, The Human Condition, likewise received wide acclaim. What controversial concept did she put forth in her Eichmann in Jerusalem? Discuss
A German pathologist, anthropologist, and statesman, Virchow contributed to nearly every branch of medical science, was a member of the Prussian lower house and later the Reichstag, and was a leader of the liberal party opposed to Bismarck. He coined the terms "thrombosis" and "embolism" and supported emerging ideas on cell division and metabolism. His many contributions earned him the appellation "Father of Modern Pathology." What was the "Sausage Duel," and how was Virchow involved in it? Discuss
Originally a schoolteacher, Pavarotti only began his vocal training in his 20s but nevertheless became one of the most successful tenors of all time. He made his professional debut in 1961 and then debuted at La Scala in 1965 and the Metropolitan Opera in 1968. A popular favorite, Pavarotti was noted for the rich and ringing clarity of his voice as well as for his immense personal charm. At the peak of his career, his concerts drew hundreds of thousands of attendees. Where did he last perform? Discuss
The strict Catholic upbringing of Nobel Prize-winning French writer François Mauriac had a profound impact on his literary output. His austere, psychological novels, for which he is best known, often grapple with the problems of sin, grace, and salvation, as exemplified in Vipers' Tangle, his masterpiece. He also wrote polemical works against totalitarianism and fascism in the 1930s, worked with the Resistance during World War II, and later wrote the foreword of what Holocaust memoir? Discuss
A leading figure of early Indian literature in English, Narayan first came to international attention in 1935, with the publication of his first novel Swami and Friends. This book and many of his later novels and short stories are set in the fictional town of Malgudi and give readers a witty, vital, and perceptive glimpse of village life in South India, where modern life and tradition often clash. Narayan also penned several nonfiction works and modern prose versions of what Indian epics? Discuss
Ellis has the notorious distinction of being the last woman executed in the UK. In 1955, a jury took just 14 minutes to convict her of murdering her lover, racecar driver David Blakely. The two had had a volatile relationship, and Ellis had previously suffered a miscarriage as a result of a punch to the stomach from Blakely, but this mattered little after she admitted openly in court that she had shot him with the intention of killing him. In what film does Ellis have an uncredited cameo? Discuss
A skilled American racecar driver, Rickenbacker entered World War I as a driver but soon became a fighter pilot. He shot down 26 enemy aircraft, earning the Congressional Medal of Honor and the moniker "Ace of Aces." After a failed foray into automobile manufacturing, he ran several airlines for General Motors and eventually acquired one of them. In 1942, his plane was lost while on a tour of military bases in the Pacific, and he was presumed dead, but he was rescued after how many days adrift? Discuss
One of the greatest Italian portrait and miniature painters of her day, Carriera became known for her miniature portraits on snuffboxes and was an originator of the Rococo style in France and Italy. By the time she was 30, she had been elected to the Academy of St. Luke in Rome, the Academy of Bologna, and the Florence Academy. As her career progressed, she gained a reputation for her pastel portraits and was even commissioned to create one of King Louis XV. What tragedy befell her late in life? Discuss
The last absolute monarch of Denmark, if only for the first year of his reign, Frederick VII faced popular demonstrations calling for political reforms almost as soon as he ascended the throne. He acceded to many of the demands, appointing a liberal ministry, renouncing absolute rule, and adopting a representative government, but he rejected a proposal to cede a portion of Schleswig to Prussia. His position on this issue eventually led to war with Prussia. What was the popular king's motto? Discuss
The inspiration for the now-obsolete term "eonism," describing the adoption of female dress and behavior by a male, the Chevalier d'Éon was a French noble, soldier, and spy who lived first as a male and then as a female. His cross-dressing appears to have begun as part of his covert activities, but by the 1770s, rumors reached France that the Chevalier was actually a woman masquerading as a man, and he was ordered to live as a woman thereafter. When was it proven that he was anatomically male? Discuss
An iconic Hollywood leading man and six-term president of the Screen Actors Guild, Heston distinguished himself as an actor playing larger-than-life heroes in films like The Ten Commandments, Planet of the Apes, El Cid, and Ben-Hur. The strapping performer also used his sonorous voice to speak out against racism and other political issues of his day. A staunch opponent of gun control, he made what phrase famous at a 2000 National Rifle Association convention? Discuss
After working for many years as a veterinary surgeon in rural England, Wight was persuaded by his wife to write down his collection of anecdotes. His humorous, fictionalized reminiscences were published under the pen name James Herriot in If Only They Could Talk (1970) and It Shouldn't Happen to a Vet (1972), issued in the US as the single and massively successful volume All Creatures Great and Small. Why did Wight feel the need to write under a pseudonym? Discuss
Richard III was made a duke after his brother Edward of York deposed the weak Lancastrian king Henry VI and assumed power. Richard and Edward were driven into exile in 1470 but returned and defeated the Lancastrians the next year. On Edward's death, Richard became protector for Edward's son, the 12-year-old King Edward V, but he usurped the throne and confined Edward and his brother to the Tower of London, where they were likely murdered. Who defeated Richard to become England's next monarch? Discuss
Bonnie Parker was the female half of the notorious Depression-era criminal duo "Bonnie and Clyde." She met Clyde Barrow in 1930 and soon became his lover as well as his partner in crime. In 1932, the pair began a 21-month crime spree—which ended when they were killed in a police ambush—that involved robberies, shootouts, and murders. Their activities were widely publicized, and they soon became America's most famous and romanticized outlaws. How did Bonnie and Clyde allegedly meet? Discuss
Lavoe was a Puerto Rican salsa singer. He moved to New York City at age 17 and found fame performing with acts like Orquesta New York and Willie Colón's band. Lavoe recorded many hits, including "Mi Gente," but with success came drug addiction and tragedy. After the deaths of his father, son, and mother-in-law and an HIV diagnosis, Lavoe jumped off a hotel balcony, likely in a suicide attempt. He survived and died of AIDS-related complications in 1993. Why were his remains later exhumed? Discuss
Pompey was a Roman general and the rival of Julius Caesar. Along with Caesar and Crassus, he was a member of the First Triumvirate established in 61 BCE. After the death of Pompey's wife, Caesar's daughter Julia, Pompey and Caesar became enemies. When Pompey received the sole consulship as the leader of the senatorial party, Caesar broke with the senate and crossed the Rubicon, and a civil war began. Pompey was defeated at Pharsalus and fled to Egypt, where he was assassinated while doing what? Discuss
Marble was an American tennis player who began playing at age 15 and rose rapidly in the national tennis rankings after 1931. She won 18 Grand Slam championships: five in singles, six in doubles, and seven in mixed doubles. Her personal life, however, was filled with tragedy and intrigue. Her husband was killed during World War II, just days after Marble had suffered a miscarriage. She attempted suicide but recovered and, in 1945, began spying for US intelligence. What was her mission? Discuss
Sophia Alekseyevna seized power in Russia after the death of her father, Czar Feodor III, and became regent during the minority of her disabled brother, Ivan V, and her half-brother, Peter I. She brutally eliminated her opponents and ruled dictatorially with her lover, Vasily V. Gallitzin. She aspired to be crowned czarina, but lacked support from the nobility and clergy. When it was rumored that she intended to kill Peter to become sole ruler, he overthrew the regency and confined her where? Discuss
Born John Chapman, Johnny Appleseed was an American folk hero known for planting apple trees. Around 1800, he traveled from Pennsylvania, where he had sold or given saplings and apple seeds to families migrating westward, to present-day Ohio, sowing apple seeds as he went. For more than 40 years, he continued to wander up and down Ohio, Indiana, and Pennsylvania, pruning and caring for his forest nurseries and helping hundreds of settlers to establish orchards. Do any of his trees still exist? Discuss
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