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Zile de nastere - Birthdays

Lipinski is an American figure skater who, at the age of 14, won both the US and World Championships, becoming the youngest person ever to win either title. In 1998, she also became the youngest individual gold medalist in Winter Olympic history. Shortly thereafter, she launched her professional skating career, a move that was sharply criticized by some. The next year, she became the youngest person to win the World Professional Figure Skating Championships. Why did she stop skating in 2002? Discuss
Before the planet Neptune was discovered, Adams—an English astronomer and mathematician—correctly predicted its existence and position based on irregularities in the motion of Uranus. However, the credit for the discovery went to Urbain Leverrier, who had come to the same conclusion later but published his findings earlier. In 1846, the planet was first observed by a German astronomer using Leverrier's calculations. A modest man, Adams also declined to publish what other findings? Discuss
While serving as consulting physician to Louis XV at Versailles, Quesnay developed an interest in economics. In his 1758 Tableau économique, he described the relationship between the different economic classes of society and the flow of payments among them, and he developed the concept of economic balance used by many later economic analysts. An advocate of laissez-faire economics, he believed that all wealth originated with the land. What school of economics is he credited with founding? Discuss
Dufy was a French designer and painter best known for his outdoor scenes of gaiety and leisure, like horse races, parades, and concerts. He also designed textiles and illustrated books. Dufy studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris and experimented with Impressionism and, later, Fauvism. In the early 1920s, he developed his distinctive style characterized by sketchily drawn objects on bright, decorative backgrounds. Later, he completed one of the largest modern paintings, an ode to what? Discuss
Charles IV was a 14th-century Holy Roman Emperor, German king, and king of Bohemia. He was educated at the French court and fought the English at Crécy, where the heroic death of his father, John of Luxemburg, made him king of Bohemia. Pope Clement VI, to whom he had promised far-reaching concessions, helped secure his election as anti-king to Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV. After the death of Louis in 1347, Charles claimed the crown. He is considered the father of what modern-day nation? Discuss
An experienced archaeologist and Egyptologist, Carter began searching for the long lost tomb of the ancient Egyptian king Tutankhamun in the early 1900s, excavating Valley of the Kings in Luxor, Egypt, through funding by his financial backer, Lord Carnarvon. In 1922, Carnarvon gave Carter one last season to make a discovery. He did, unearthing the pristine, treasure-filled tomb that became world famous. What fact about Carter's life is often used to refute the so-called Curse of the Pharaohs? Discuss
Mann overcame limited early education to enter law and politics. He became secretary of Massachusetts' new board of education in 1837, at a time when the public school system was in poor condition. In his 12 years there, he established high schools, enhanced teacher training and pay, curbed child labor, and improved facilities and equipment. He fought for free, nonsectarian, universal schooling, greatly advancing education in the US. What quote is engraved on his monument at Antioch College? Discuss
Grotius was a Dutch jurist, philosopher, and writer. He enrolled at the University of Leiden at the age of 11 and became a lawyer at 15. Among his key legal treatises is the first definitive text on international law, On the Law of War and Peace, which prescribes rules for the conduct of war and advances the idea that nations are bound by natural law. In 1615, he became involved in a religious controversy that extended to politics and was eventually imprisoned. How did he escape? Discuss
Chaney was an American silent-film actor. Born to parents who were both deaf and mute, he learned to express himself through pantomime at an early age. He moved to Hollywood in 1912 and became one of the biggest stars of the time, appearing in more than 150 silent films. Known as "the man of a thousand faces," he masterfully used makeup to play tortured, grotesque characters in horror films such as The Phantom of the Opera. How did fake snow made of corn flakes contribute to his death? Discuss
Despite being a dominant force in the US Democratic Party, Bryan lost three bids for the presidency. However, he helped secure the presidential nomination for Woodrow Wilson, under whom he became secretary of state. Bryan's belief in neutrality led him to resign when it appeared that Wilson would enter the US into World War I. A devout Presbyterian, he later campaigned for Prohibition and, in 1925, died after exhausting himself prosecuting and finally winning what famous legal case? Discuss
Updike was a prolific American author whose novels and stories usually deal with the tensions and frustrations of middle-class life. Published between 1961 and 1990, his four famous "Rabbit" novels follow an ordinary American man through the latter decades of the 20th century. Updike is one of the few authors to have won the Pulitzer Prize for fiction more than once. He was also a respected literary critic who championed young authors and espoused what five rules for literary criticism? Discuss
The seventh US president, Jackson was a child of the frontier and lost his entire family in the American Revolution. He was just 14 at the time and was already a member of the local militia. After emerging from the War of 1812 a hero for his defense of New Orleans, he rode a wave of popularity to the presidency in 1828. He was seen as a champion of the common man, but he relentlessly displaced many Native Americans. His wife died weeks before his inauguration. Why did he have to marry her twice? Discuss
Nijinsky was a ballet dancer and ballet's first modernist choreographer. One of the greatest dancers of the 20th century, he performed spectacular leaps with unrivaled grace. During his career, his innovations were considered both scandalous and revolutionary. He had a romantic relationship with his mentor, Sergey Diaghilev, who dismissed him from the Ballets Russes when he married a Hungarian countess. A few years later, acute schizophrenia ended his career. Did he and Diaghilev ever reconcile? Discuss
The 13th child of a Massachusetts farmer, Burbank received little formal education, yet he went on to become a groundbreaking horticulturist. Influenced by Charles Darwin's writings, he began breeding plants at age 21. The rapid success of his Burbank potato, the russet variety of which is now the most widely-grown potato in the US, allowed him to move to California and establish an experimental farm, where he developed more than 800 varieties of plants. What is his spineless cactus used for? Discuss
A shoemaker's son, Marlowe attended Cambridge University and then became an actor and dramatist in London. His plays, such as Dr. Faustus and The Jew of Malta, often center on a heroic personality ruined by his own ambition. Most critics hold that the poetic beauty of his language elevates his plays' violence to high art, and many believe that he influenced Shakespeare's work. At 29, he was stabbed to death in a tavern brawl, possibly due to his involvement in what covert activity? Discuss
Jaspers was a German philosopher and psychopathologist often identified as an exponent of existentialism, although he rejected this classification. In his magnum opus, Philosophy, he argued that the aim of philosophy is practical and that its purpose is the fulfillment of human existence. He believed illumination is achieved through the experience of "limit situations" like conflict, guilt, and suffering, which define the human condition. What forced him to give up his teaching career? Discuss
Powell was a British army officer and founder of the Boy Scouts and Girl Guides, later the Girl Scouts. He was a hero of the South African War and author of Aids to Scouting, a military textbook. Upon learning that his book was being used to train boys in woodcraft, he wrote Scouting for Boys and established the Boy Scout movement in 1908. In 1910, with his sister and wife, he founded the Girl Guides. What disguise did Powell use while gathering information in war? Discuss
Ono is a Japanese artist, musician, author, and peace activist best known for her marriage to John Lennon of the Beatles. She was raised in Japan and the US, where she started exploring conceptual and performance art. A member of the Fluxus movement, Ono developed a reputation as an avant-garde filmmaker, conceptual artist, performance artist, and experimental musician. Her 1964 Cut Piece, a commentary on identity, gender issues, suffering, and loneliness, invited the audience to do what? Discuss
Estep was an American Baptist historian, author, and professor of church history. He was considered one of the world's leading authorities on the Anabaptist movement, a Christian sect that rejects infant baptism and practices the ritual of believer's baptism only after a person has made a declaration of faith. Estep wrote numerous works, including books on subjects such as Baptist and Anabaptist history, religious liberty, and world missions. At what theological seminary did he teach? Discuss
Brecht was a German playwright and poet whose brilliant wit and revolutionary theatrical experiments made him a vital and controversial force in modern drama. In 1928, he displayed his hostility toward capitalism as well as his bittersweet compassion for humanity in The Threepenny Opera. With the rise of the Nazis in 1933, he went into exile, first in Scandinavia and then in the US. One of Brecht's most important theories was the concept of Verfremdungseffekt, which means what? Discuss
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