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Zile de nastere - Birthdays

Beecher became one of the most famous and influential American ministers of his time for his advocacy of an emotional "gospel of love" Christianity. Every important issue of the day was discussed from his pulpit and in his lectures. He was a leader in the antislavery movement, a proponent of women's suffrage, and an advocate of the theory of evolution. In 1874, however, he became the subject of a sensational adultery trial for an alleged affair with Elizabeth Tilton. What was the verdict? Discuss
Rudolph was the first American woman to win three gold medals in track and field in a single Olympic Games. She accomplished this despite having contracted numerous serious illnesses as a child, including polio, which damaged her leg and required her to wear a brace for some time. At the 1960 Games, she won gold in the 100-meter dash, the 200-meter dash, and as part of the 4x100 meter relay. She finished the 100-meter dash in world-record time but was not credited with the record. Why? Discuss
Drafted into the German army at age 18, Remarque served in World War I and was wounded several times. From his experience of trench warfare, he drew a grimly realistic picture of the horror of battle in his first novel and masterpiece, All Quiet on the Western Front. It was an immediate international success, and Remarque went on to write several other novels. All Quiet on the Western Front was later burned by the Nazis, who guillotined which of his family members in 1943? Discuss
Sartre was a French philosopher, playwright, and novelist who became the foremost exponent of existentialism in the 20th century. His first novel, Nausea, was one of many works depicting man as a lonely being burdened with a terrifying freedom. He served in World War II, was taken prisoner, escaped, and was involved in the French resistance, during which he wrote multiple works. In 1964, he became the first person to voluntarily decline the Nobel Prize in Literature. Why did he refuse it? Discuss
Atkins got his first guitar by making a trade with his brother, and it was arguably the best deal he ever made. Although he struggled with shyness and suffered from severe asthma—he had to sleep sitting up and often fell asleep still holding his guitar—he became an accomplished guitarist and went on to release several hit records, develop a signature line of guitars, and help create country music's "Nashville sound." What did "Mr. Guitar," as he came to be known, trade to get that first guitar? Discuss
Simpson was an American socialite for whom English King Edward VIII voluntarily abdicated the throne. Their relationship caused a furor in England because the Church of England at the time did not allow people with living ex-spouses to marry, and, as king, Edward was also head of the church. Simpson's two ex-husbands were still alive when she married Edward on June 3, 1937, just six months after he relinquished his title. How did Wallis and Edward spend the rest of their lives together? Discuss
The youngest daughter of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, Anastasia was allegedly murdered at age 17 along with her parents and siblings during the Russian Revolution. After the family's execution, rumors swirled that Anastasia had managed to survive. The appearance of several imposters further fueled these rumors, as did the discovery of her family's burial site in 1991 with two bodies missing. Has anyone been able to conclusively prove that Anastasia was indeed killed with the rest of her family? Discuss
Edward became king upon the death of his father, Henry III, in 1272 but was not crowned until he returned from a crusade two years later. His 35-year reign was characterized by constant warfare, including long and costly campaigns to conquer Wales and Scotland. It was a struggle to fund these endeavors, and he did so, in part, by exploiting the Jews under his rule. Finally, in 1290, he expelled them from England and seized their property. For how long did his Edict of Expulsion remain in effect? Discuss
Griffin was an American author who darkened his white skin with medication and sunlamps in order to experience the racial segregation of the southern US. He described his experiences in his controversial 1961 book Black Like Me, which details his interactions with others—both white and black—and the problems he encountered while traveling and attempting to meet basic needs. It is often recounted that Griffin died from skin cancer resulting from his efforts to darken his skin. Is it true? Discuss
Antonescu was dictator of Romania during World War II when his country was part of the Axis. He had a close relationship with Adolf Hitler, who lauded the Romanian's "breadth of vision." Antonescu ordered the 1941 Odessa Massacre that claimed the lives of at least 25,000 Jews, though some estimates suggest an even higher death toll. In 1944, Antonescu was overthrown in a coup and later convicted of war crimes and executed. In his final letter to his wife, what did Antonescu encourage her to do? Discuss
Guevara was a Latin American revolutionary who developed guerrilla warfare as a tool for revolution. Born in Argentina, Guevara traveled widely as a medical student and became convinced that only violent revolt would end the poverty he witnessed. He joined the Cuban Revolution and became one of Fidel Castro's most trusted aides before leaving to foster revolutions elsewhere. He was killed in 1967 while directing a guerrilla movement in Bolivia. What is the meaning of Guevara's nickname, "Che"? Discuss
A leading British fashion designer of the Edwardian era, Gordon made less restrictive clothing for women that she sold in her own "Lucile, Ltd." shops in London, Paris, Chicago, and New York. To promote her wares, she organized tea times when models would parade around in her designs, a precursor of the modern fashion show. Gordon was a passenger on the Titanic and survived its sinking by boarding Lifeboat 1 with her husband. What did the tabloids allege about their escape from the ship? Discuss
A New York City-based photojournalist, Fellig distinguished himself with his stark and often grisly black-and-white images. His nickname, Weegee, a phonetic pronunciation of Ouija, was derived from his seemingly clairvoyant knowledge of where crimes and emergencies were taking place and his habit of frequently beating authorities to the scenes. In reality, there was nothing supernatural about this—he simply possessed a police radio and made good use of it. What did he keep in his car's trunk? Discuss
Wilder was just 8 years old when his ailing mother's doctor urged him to try making her laugh. The boy took those words to heart and developed a passion for performing that eventually led him to Hollywood. He is best known for his roles in comedy classics like Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory and Young Frankenstein. He cowrote the latter film with producer and director Mel Brooks, and their screenplay was nominated for an Academy Award. Which film sequel's script beat them out? Discuss
McDaniel was the first African American to win an Academy Award, earning it for her role as the maid Mammy in 1939's American Civil War epic Gone with the Wind. Segregation, still widespread in the American South at the time, prevented her from attending the film's Atlanta premiere, but when her friend and fellow actor Clark Gable—who had recommended her for the role—wanted to boycott the event, she insisted that he attend. Why does McDaniel have two stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame? Discuss
Anderson was the first licensed female physician, as well as the first female mayor, in England. Denied admission by many medical schools, she studied privately with physicians before finally earning a license from the Scottish Society of Apothecaries. Largely as a result of her efforts, British examining boards later opened their examinations to women. Anderson championed the idea of medical care by female doctors for female patients. What was her New Hospital for Women later renamed? Discuss
Suharto was a relatively unknown army chief in 1965, when he crushed an alleged coup with a ruthless purge of communists and leftists throughout Indonesia that left as many as 1,000,000 dead. In 1967, he replaced the deposed Sukarno as president. He oversaw a return to economic stability and led the violent 1975 invasion of East Timor, which Indonesia soon annexed. Greatly unpopular after the economic unrest of the 1990s, Suharto resigned in 1998. Why was he placed under house arrest in 2000? Discuss
Morley was an American archaeologist who studied pre-Columbian Maya civilization throughout Central America, including at Copán, Honduras, Petén, Guatemala, and Chichén Itzá, Mexico. Though his archaeological work was widely recognized during his lifetime, it was only after his death that his other career was revealed—Morley worked as a spy for the US during World War I by searching for German submarine bases in Central America. His adventurous life may have inspired what famous film character? Discuss
Cosgrave was the first prime minister of the Irish Free State, which was created following a 1921 treaty with Britain. Serving from 1922 to 1932, he was able to maintain a democratic government despite several crises and the tensions related to the Irish struggle for sovereignty. Cosgrave was elected to British Parliament in 1918 but protested British rule by refusing to take his seat. Two years earlier, his role in the Easter Rising of 1916 earned him a death sentence. How did he avoid it? Discuss
Benedict was an American anthropologist whose theories have had a profound influence on cultural anthropology. Her landmark text Patterns of Culture was published in 1934, at a time when her field was dominated by men. In it, she promotes cultural relativism—the assessment of cultural practices within their own cultural context. From a young age, she was fascinated with death and was drawn to studying how other cultures treat death. Whose "cult of grief" did Benedict despise? Discuss
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