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Zile de nastere - Birthdays

Though Baker was not as well known as some of the other leaders of the US civil rights movement, she spent more than 50 years as a behind-the-scenes activist. Baker grew up in rural North Carolina listening to her grandmother's stories about slavery. After college, she moved to New York City and became involved in social justice activism. She worked with student groups, political organizations, and religious coalitions to facilitate collective action. What prompted her to protest against Italy? Discuss
Though Jay initially deplored the growing conflict between Britain and its American colonies, he became a staunch supporter of the revolution once it began. He was heavily involved in early US government and urged ratification of the Constitution. He served as the first chief justice of the Supreme Court, among other posts. Today considered one of the "Founding Fathers," Jay once joked that he could travel from Boston to Philadelphia by the light of his burning effigies after he had done what? Discuss
After Kamehameha V succeeded his brother as king of Hawaii in 1863, he tried to restore the old tribal ways. He proclaimed a new constitution that restored power to the monarch, weakened the legislature, and restricted suffrage. He even refused to allow the sale of alcohol. Under his reign, the influence of American missionaries waned rapidly. On his 42nd birthday, he died without an heir, bringing the Kamehameha dynasty to an end. How did Mark Twain describe the king during his stay in Hawaii? Discuss
Sachs was a German poet, translator, and dramatist. Born to a prosperous family, Sachs wrote poems mainly for fun until the advent of Nazism darkened her work and forced her to flee on one of the last flights to Sweden. Her lyrics from those years combine lean simplicity with intense imagery. Collections of her poetry include The Seeker and O the Chimneys. What other poet developed a deep friendship with Sachs, which unfortunately exacerbated both poets' mental illnesses? Discuss
The son of a German cobbler, Winckelmann overcame years of hardship to pursue his love of ancient Greek art, becoming a renowned scholar and one of the founders of scientific archaeology and art history. He spent much of his later life studying in the vast Vatican Library, and his writings reawakened the popular taste for Classical art and helped spur the Neoclassical movement. In 1768, a fellow traveler—who did not know who Winckelmann was—murdered him at a hotel, ostensibly for what reason? Discuss
Rivera was a Mexican mural painter. In Europe, he was influenced by the paintings of El Greco and Goya and closely associated with Cézanne and Picasso. Convinced that his art belonged to the populace and should be displayed in public spaces, he returned to Mexico in 1921 and painted, with the assistance of younger artists, large murals dealing with the life, history, and social problems of Mexico. He later completed several murals in the US. Rivera was twice married to what famous artist? Discuss
Cather moved with her family to Nebraska at the age of nine, and though she later settled in New York, her prairie upbringing deeply influenced her writing. Her novels, which include O Pioneers!, Death Comes for the Archbishop, and My Ántonia, celebrate the spirit and courage of pioneer life. Her works include several independent heroines of the frontier and have been studied from a feminist perspective. Cather occasionally wore men's clothing and went by what nickname? Discuss
Kilmer was a prolific poet who celebrated nature and faith in short, sentimental verse. His works, now mostly forgotten, have been dismissed by modern scholars as overly simplistic. Today, his reputation largely rests on the wide popularity of a single 1913 poem, "Trees." It begins, "I think that I shall never see / A poem lovely as a tree," and many specific trees have been proposed as Kilmer's inspiration. His career was cut short when what killed him at age 31? Discuss
Disney began his career as a cartoonist in 1920. By the time he died in 1966, he had built an entertainment empire. His enormously successful cartoons and films—both animated and live-action—employed groundbreaking technology and introduced now-famous characters such as Mickey Mouse. A skilled businessman as well as an innovator, Disney oversaw his company's expansion into theme parks and mass merchandising. According to legend, what were the mysterious last two words Disney wrote? Discuss
One of the most popular stars of the musical stage in her day, Russell debuted in New York as a teenager and soon became a star. She was known for her flamboyant personal life, her hourglass figure, and her voice. Though she was married four times, her affair with "Diamond Jim" Brady has become legendary. She also wrote a syndicated newspaper column and was a popular lecturer. She died shortly after completing a fact-finding mission—on behalf of US President Warren Harding—to investigate what? Discuss
The youngest daughter of renowned psychologist Sigmund Freud—the founder of psychoanalysis—Anna Freud went on to become a pioneer in child psychology. In 1938, she and her terminally ill father escaped Nazi-controlled Austria for London. There, she founded and directed a clinic for child therapy. Her writings include Normality and Pathology in Childhood and three books on the effects of war on children. Her own childhood was marked by what her father called her "age-old jealousy" of whom? Discuss
An internationally known Greek-American opera star, Callas was celebrated less for her voice than for her electrifying stage presence and mastery of difficult roles. Her career blossomed in the 1940s. Offstage, her fiery temperament, dramatic love life, and demanding personality earned her the reputation of a consummate diva. During her media-fueled rivalry with soprano Renata Tebaldi in the 1950s, Callas was quoted as saying that comparing her to Tebaldi was like comparing what two things? Discuss
Markova was a well-known English ballerina. She made her debut with Sergey Diaghilev's Ballets Russes in 1924 and later became the first prima ballerina of what is now the Royal Ballet. Noted for her ethereal grace and lightness, she excelled in classic roles and was celebrated as the lead in Giselle. She formed several ballet companies with Anton Dolin and served as director of the Metropolitan Opera Ballet for six years. How old was she when she retired from dancing? Discuss
Known as one of the greatest satirists in the English language, Swift was an ordained Anglican priest who devoted himself to exposing England's unfair treatment of his native Ireland. In his ironic 1729 tract "A Modest Proposal," he suggested that the Irish escape poverty by selling their children to by eaten by the English. His classic Gulliver's Travels is a ruthless satire of human follies. Swift once mocked a publisher of astrological predictions by making what prediction of his own? Discuss
Lewis was an Irish-British scholar noted for his witty explorations of Christianity, as well as for his classic series of children's fantasy novels, The Chronicles of Narnia, which includes The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe. He also wrote The Screwtape Letters, a satirical novel in which an experienced devil teaches his young charge about temptation. During World War I, Lewis made a pact with a fellow soldier before the man was killed. How did Lewis keep his promise? Discuss
Not long after Hyde allegedly attended his wife's funeral dressed in women's clothes, the queen of England—whom Hyde had also reportedly dressed as during an official event—dismissed him from his post as governor of New York and New Jersey. The decision was purportedly prompted by mounting complaints from the colonists he governed, including myriad charges of corruption. He was later imprisoned for debt. What is known about the portrait that supposedly depicts him wearing a gown? Discuss
Celsius was a Swedish astronomer who published observations of the aurora borealis and supervised the building of an observatory at Uppsala, Sweden, where he pioneered the measurement of the brightness of stars. Today, however, he is better known for an invention that has been adopted by almost the entire world—the centigrade, or Celsius, thermometer. Originally, his temperature scale had 0 as its boiling point and 100 as its freezing point. Who reversed the numbers after Celsius died? Discuss
The niece of a wealthy Philadelphia banker, Drexel inherited a vast fortune and used it to address racial injustice and educational inequality in the US. She established mission schools across the American West and founded Xavier University, the only historically black, Catholic university in the US. In 1891, after becoming a Roman Catholic nun, she founded a society of nuns to aid Native Americans and African Americans. The second US-born saint, Drexel is known as the patron saint of what? Discuss
An influential American music critic and composer, Thomson studied in Paris. There, he met Gertrude Stein, with whom he wrote the operas Four Saints in Three Acts and The Mother of Us All. He also wrote several film scores. As music critic for New York's Herald Tribune, he delivered gracefully written criticism that was respected for its concern with music rather than the performers. What unusual method of composition was Thomson known for reviving? Discuss
Toulouse-Lautrec developed his interest in art as a teen during a lengthy convalescence after breaking both his legs in separate accidents. At 21, he set up his own studio in Paris, but alcoholism brought about his early demise at 36. Even so, he left an enormous and influential body of work, which captured the atmosphere of Paris brothels and cabaret life with intense colors and remarkable objectivity. His lithographs and posters are now world-renowned. What cocktail is he said to have created? Discuss
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